Theory X and theory Y are one of the known theories of motivation, which was developed and created by Douglas McGregor in 1960s at MIT Sloan School of management sciences. McGregor asserted that social needs were just as important to workers as economics. In fact, social factors can most important motivational factors in the workplace. This theory is well known and is being studied in the streams of organizational behavior, organizational communication, organizational development, and human resource management. Both of these, have a similar focus; they are used for performing managerial role more effectively, while assembling the production factors including the people and certain other resources etc. and which is for the monetary benefit of the company.
This theory is yet proved to be counter-effective in the recent most common business practices; the managers, employers have an assumption the employees are lax off from work, and will shunt and avoid doing as they dislike the work. So the management believes that the ultimate solution is to closely scrutinize upon them with proper supervision and comprehension of different control systems. And in result, the employees are motivated accordingly and will show efficient results. This theory is of the pessimistic view that every talk must end in blaming the other, and the organizational goals can only be achieved by the strong intense force of coercion and threat. A brief summary of the theory X managers is highlighted below;
1. They take a pessimistic view of employees
2. Assume that employees dislike work and avoid responsibility
3. The employees must therefore be coerced into pursuing the organizational goals
4. Theory X management is pretty similar to scientific management.
In theory Y, the management is of the view that the employees might be ambitious to work and are self-motivated to achieve the organizational goals. They are well capable of taking self-control and vitalizing their own abilities in generating good results for the company. And this is because they enjoy good physical and mental health. The employees have the propensity to solve their own problems with dedication and creativity and they know how to use their talent accordingly. Upon giving the proper stimulus to them, the theory Y mangers firmly believe that they will take their responsibility and will commit to accomplish the company’s goals. Their belief is that successful job completion is always a result of strong good motivation. The managers develop an atmosphere of trust and good rapport with the employees which is key note in human resource management. A brief summary of the theory Y managers is as follows;
1. They take an optimistic view of employees
2. They assume that employees take a voluntary, active interest in their work.
3. Employees don’t view work as a burden imposed on them.
4. Employees can be a source of valuable insights and innovations.
5. Overly centralized, command and control management structures harm the organization.
6. If treated fairly, the employees will voluntarily purse the organization’s goals.
Nowadays the theory Y is expected to be practiced within the organizations as under the right circumstances, employees would willingly contribute their ingenuity for the organizational benefit. And by giving them the right opportunity to explore their talents, they can be of great worth for the organization.